20 Rabee’uth-thaani 1430
Question: What is the ruling on someone who prays while some part of his Awrah (parts of the body that should be covered during the prayer) are uncovered and he does not realize it until after completing the prayer when someone informs him about it. Is his prayer correct or it is required from him to repeat the prayer?
Answer by Shaikh Saleh ibn Fawzan al-Fawzan (hafidhahullah), ‘No doubt that covering the awrah is from the conditions of Salaat with its pillars. Ibn Abdur-Barr (rahimahullah) said, ‘There is a consensus of the people of knowledge upon the annihilation of the Salaat if one prays while in the state of nakedness while he is able to dress himself.’ Or he said something similar. So, covering the Awrah is from the conditions of the soundness of the Salaat.
However, there are details concerning what is mentioned in the question that the one who performed the prayer did not realize that some parts of his Awrah were uncovered until after he had completed his Salaat and those present near him informed him about it. If what was uncovered was too much, then the prayer has to be repeated. If what was uncovered was little and not intended, then the prayer is correct Insha’Allah based upon the narration,
Narrated Amr ibn Salama, ‘…When my father returned, he said, ‘…The Prophet said, ‘…when the time for the prayer becomes due, …let the one amongst you who knows Qur’aan, the most should, lead the prayer.’ So they looked for such a person and found none who knew more Qur’aan than I because of the Qur’aanic material which I used to learn from the caravans. They therefore made me their Imam (to lead the prayer) and at that time I was a boy of six or seven years, wearing a Burda (i.e. a black square garment) proved to be very short for me (and my body became partly naked). A lady from the tribe said, ‘Won’t you cover the private part of your reciter for us?’ So they bought (a piece of cloth) and made a shirt for me…’ [Saheeh al-Bukharee]
So, it is proved that if some part of the awrah is uncovered, and it is a small part and unintended then the prayer is correct. However, if it was intentionally left open and he did not cover it while he was able to, then his prayer is incorrect, even if it was an insignificant (part of the awrah). And Allah knows best.’ [Arabic text of the Fatawa can be found at, http://www.alfuzan.com Fatawa no. 16603]